What is Programming?


What is Programming?

Programming is the way toward taking an algorithm and encoding it into documentation, a programming language, with the goal that it very well may be executed by a computer.

The process of producing a set of instructions that inform a computer how to complete a task is known as programming. A variety of computer programming languages, such as JavaScript, Python, and C++, can be used to program.

After knowing what programming is, then we can go further and define what computer programming is.

What is Programming?

What is Computer Programming?

Computer Programming is defined as the process of designing and developing an executable computer program to achieve a given computational result or complete a specified task. Programming entails duties such as analysis, algorithm generation, algorithm accuracy and resource consumption assessment, and algorithm implementation in a programming language of choice (commonly referred to as coding). Rather than machine code, which is immediately executed by the central processing unit, a program’s source code is written in one or more languages that are understandable by programmers.

The fundamental goal of programming is to come up with a set of instructions that will automate the completion of a task on a computer, usually to solve a problem. As a result, effective programming frequently necessitates knowledge of a variety of areas, including the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.

Testing, debugging, source code maintenance, building system implementation, and management of generated artifacts, such as computer program machine code, are all duties that go along with and are related to programming. While these may be considered part of the programming process, the word “software development” is frequently used to refer to the overall process, with the terms “programming,” “implementation,” and “coding” reserved for the actual writing of code. Engineering methodologies are combined with software development practices in software engineering. Designers, Analysts, and programmers employ reverse engineering to analyze and re-create/re-implement systems.

Why should you learn to program?

You may have already utilized software to address problems, such as word processing or spreadsheets. Perhaps you’re now interested in learning how programmers create software. A program is a set of instructions that tells the computer how to perform the activities you want and get the results you want.

At least three compelling reasons exist for learning programming:

Programming aids in the comprehension of computers. The computer is nothing more than a tool. You will have a better understanding of how a computer works if you learn to build simple programs.

Writing a few uncomplicated applications boosts your self-assurance. Many people get a lot of pleasure from writing a set of instructions that solves a problem.

Learning programming allows you to rapidly determine whether you enjoy programming and have the analytical mindset that programmers require. Even if you decide that programming isn’t for you, knowing how it works can give you a better grasp of what programmers and computers are capable of.

A programming language is a set of rules that allows you to instruct a computer on what operations to perform.

However, there isn’t just one programming language; there are plenty. This chapter will teach you how to control a computer using the programming language. You might even decide to pursue a career as a coder.

Before we go any further, keep in mind that you will not be a programmer when you finish reading this article, or even when you finish reading some other resources. Programming mastery necessitates a great deal of practice and instruction, which is beyond the scope of this article. You will, however, learn how programmers create answers to a wide range of issues.

What Do Programmers Actually Do?

In general, a programmer’s job is to translate issue solutions into computer instructions. That is, a programmer develops a computer program’s instructions and executes them on the computer, evaluates the program to determine if it is running properly, and makes program corrections. A report about the program is also written by the programmer. All of these tasks are performed to assist a user in meeting a need, such as paying staff, charging consumers, or admitting students to college.

Although the aforementioned programming duties could be done alone, a programmer frequently interacts with a range of people. If a program is part of a system comprising numerous programs, for example, the programmer collaborates with other programmers to ensure that the programs work well together. If you were a programmer, you might have coordination meetings with users, managers, systems analysts, and colleagues who assess your work in the same way that you assess theirs.

Let’s have a look at the programming procedures:

The Programming Methodology.
 Developing software entails the same processes as any other problem-solving endeavor. In the programming process, there are five main components:
1. Identifying the issue.
2. Creating a solution.
3. Programming the software.
4. Putting the program to the test.
5. Keeping track of the program.

Let’s take a look at each one separately.

1. Identifying the Issue
Assume you are called a programmer because your services are required. To assess the problem, you meet with users from the client organization, or you meet with a systems analyst who explains the project. The task of defining the problem entails determining what you already know (input-provided data) and what you want to gain (output-the result). Eventually, you’ll have a written agreement that describes the types of input, processing, and output that are expected, among other things. This is not an easy task.

2. Creating a Solution
Drawing a flowchart and writing pseudo-code, or potentially both, are two typical methods for preparing a problem’s solution. A flowchart is essentially a visual representation of a step-by-step solution to a problem. It is made of arrows that show the program’s direction and boxes and other symbols that represent activities. It’s a road map for what your program will do and how it will do it. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has created a set of flowchart symbols that are universal. Figure 1 depicts the symbols and how they might be used in a simplified flowchart of a regular daily task: mailing a letter.

Pseudo-code is a nonstandard language based on English that allows you to express your answer with more accuracy than plain English while requiring less precision than a formal programming language. Pseudo-code allows you to concentrate on the program logic without having to worry about the specific syntax of a programming language just yet. Pseudo-code, on the other hand, is not computer-executable. We’ll go over these in more detail later in this chapter when we look at language samples.

3. Programming the Software
The next stage for you as a programmer is to code the program or express your answer in a programming language. You’ll convert the logic from the flowchart to a programming language using pseudocode or another tool. A programming language, as previously stated, is a set of rules for guiding the computer on what operations to perform. BASIC, COBOL, Pascal, FORTRAN, and C are just a few examples of programming languages. You might have to work with one or more of these. Later in this chapter, we’ll go through the various sorts of languages in greater depth.

Despite the fact that programming languages are linguistically similar to English, they are significantly more exact. To make your program operate, you must strictly adhere to the rules of the syntax of the programming language. Of course, just as speaking grammatically perfect English does not guarantee that your program will work, utilizing the language correctly does not guarantee that your program will work. The argument is that proper language usage is a must-do initial step. Then, most likely using a terminal or personal computer, you must key in your coded program in a format that the machine understands.

Another thing to keep in mind is that programmers frequently use a text editor, which is similar to a word processor, to build the program’s file. As a newbie, you’ll probably want to start by writing your program code on paper.

4. Putting the program to the test
Some experts believe that if a program is well-designed, it can be developed correctly the first time around. In fact, they claim that there are mathematical methods for proving the correctness of a program. However, because the world’s defects are still with us, most programmers come to terms with the fact that their newly built programs will almost certainly contain a few flaws. This can be discouraging at first because programmers are typically exact, meticulous, and detail-oriented individuals who take pride in their work. Nonetheless, there are numerous ways to add errors into programs, and you, like those who have gone before you, will almost certainly uncover several of them.

After you’ve finished coding the program, you’ll need to be ready to test it on a computer. The following phases are included in this step:
Desk-checking: Similar to proofreading, the programmer who is looking for a shortcut and ready to run the program on the computer once it is written may skip this process. However, thorough desk-checking may reveal multiple inaccuracies, thereby saving you time in the long run. Desk-checking entails just sitting down and mentally tracing, or checking, the program’s logic in order to ensure that it is error-free and usable. A walkthrough, a procedure in which a group of programmers your peers review your program and provide ideas in a collegial manner, is used by many businesses to take this phase a step further.

Translating: A translator is a program that (1) checks your program’s syntax to ensure that the programming language was correctly used, providing you with all syntax-error messages known as diagnostics, and (2) then translates your program into a form that the computer can understand. The translator informs you if you have used the programming language incorrectly in any way as a byproduct of the process. These types of errors are referred to as syntax errors. The translator generates descriptive error messages. For example, if you type N=2 *(I+J)) in FORTRAN with two closing parentheses instead of one, you’ll get the message “UNMATCHED PARENTHESES.” (Error messages may be worded differently by different translators.) A compiler is most commonly used to translate programs. A compiler will translate your entire program at once. A compiler converts your original program, known as a source module, into an object module during the translation process. During the link/load phase, prewritten programs from a system library can be added, resulting in a load module. The computer can then execute the load module.

Debugging: Debugging, a term commonly used in programming, refers to the process of detecting, locating, and correcting bugs (mistakes) by running the program. These bugs are logic errors, such as instructing a computer to repeat an operation but failing to instruct it on how to stop repeating it. During this stage, you run the program with test data that you create. To ensure that you test every aspect of the program, you must carefully plan the test data.

5. Keeping Track of the Program
Although like many programmers, you may be eager to pursue more exciting computer-centered activities, documentation is a continual, necessary process. Documentation is a written detailed description of the programming cycle as well as specific program facts. The origin and nature of the problem, a brief narrative description of the program, logic tools such as flowcharts and pseudo-code, data-record descriptions, program listings, and testing results are typical program documentation materials. Comments within the program are also considered to be an important part of the documentation. Many programmers write documentation as they code. Program documentation can, in a general context, be considered as part of the documentation for an entire system.

Throughout the program’s conception, development, and testing, the intelligent programmer continues to record it. Documentation is required to aid program design and complement human memory. Documentation is also necessary for communicating with others who are interested in the software, particularly other programmers who may be on a programming team. Because the computer business has such a high turnover rate, written documentation is required so that people who follow after you may make any necessary software adjustments or hunt down any mistakes you missed.

Computer Programming as a Career

In the realm of computers, there is a scarcity of qualified employees. Consider the benefits of the computer sector and what it takes to excel in it before joining their ranks.

The Pleasures of the Field

Few people opt to quit the computer sector, despite the fact that many people change careers. Indeed, computer workers, particularly programmers, frequently report high levels of job satisfaction in studies. This happiness can be attributed to a number of factors. One is the difficulty: most computer-related tasks are not routine. Another consideration is security, as experienced computer specialists are usually in demand. And that work pays well—you won’t be rich, but you should be able to live well. Women and minorities have always found success in the computing sector. Finally, the industry is endlessly fascinating since it is constantly changing.

What is Programming?

What You’ll Need

Obviously, you’ll need certain qualifications, most notably a two- or four-year degree in computer science or computer information systems. We won’t go into detail about the prerequisites and salaries because they differ by company and region. Beyond that, a person with good oral and written communication skills is the most likely to acquire a job and advance in their profession. These are the attributes that potential employers can pick up on during an interview. Advanced degrees are sometimes linked to promotions (an M.B.A. or an M.S. in computer science).

Opening Opportunities

The general outlook for the computer industry is positive. According to the Bureau of Labour Statistics, there has been a 72 percent growth in programmers and a 69 percent increase in systems used since 2010, and we will explore the most popular ones later in the chapter. However, before we get into individual languages, we need to talk about language levels.

Language Levels

The levels are stated to be “lower” or “higher,” depending on how close they are to the computer’s own language (S and 1s = low) or to how close they are to the language used by people (more English-like-high). We’ll look at five different degrees of language. To correlate to stages or generations, they are numbered 1 through 5. Each generation improves on the previous one in terms of ease of use and functionality. Languages are divided into five generations.

Natural languages,
Assembly languages,
Machine language,
High-level languages,
Very high-level languages.

Let’s take a look at each of these areas one by one.

Machine Language
Humans like to deal in letters and words rather than numbers. Numbers, on the other hand, are what machine language is strictly speaking. Data and program instructions are represented as 1s and Os-binary digits in machine language, which correspond to the on and off electrical states of the computer. Each sort of computer has its own set of instructions. Programmers had crude ways for mixing numbers to indicate instructions like add and compare in the early days of computing. The programs were primitive by today’s standards, and they were difficult to read and use. Assembly languages were swiftly developed by the computer industry.

Assembly Languages
Assembly languages are now considered very low level—that is, they are not as easy to use as more contemporary languages. However, at the time they were invented, they were regarded as a significant advancement. Assembly languages employ mnemonic codes, abbreviations that are easy to remember, to replace the Is and Os used in machine language: A for Add, C for Compare, MP for Multiply, STO for storing information in memory, and so on. Although these codes are not English words, they are nonetheless better to numbers (Os and 1s) alone in terms of human convenience. Assembly languages allow for the use of names for memory locations rather than actually address numbers, such as RATE or TOTAL. Each type of computer, like machine language, has its own assembly language.

A translator is required by an assembly language programmer to transform the assembly language program into machine language. Because machine language is the only language that the computer can understand, a translator is required. An assembler software, often known as an assembler, is used to create the translator. It translates assembly-language programs into machine-language instructions. Programmers do not have to worry about translation; all they have to do is write programs in assembly language. The assembler is in charge of the translation.

Assembly languages are a step forward, but they still have a lot of drawbacks. One major downside is that assembly language is extremely detailed, making assembly programming difficult, time-consuming, and error-prone. This flaw may be seen in Figure 2 of the program. Assembly language is less difficult to read than machine language, but it is still time-consuming.

High-Level Languages
In the early 1960s, the widespread use of high-level languages turned programming into something very different from what it had previously been. The programs were developed in an English-like style, making them more user-friendly. As a result, a programmer can do more with less work, and programs may now direct considerably more complex activities.

The huge expansion in data processing that typified the 1960s and 1970s was fueled by these so-called third-generation languages. The number of mainframes in use expanded from hundreds to tens of thousands throughout that time. Third-generation languages have had a huge impact on our society.

generally, a translator is required to convert a high-level language’s symbolic assertions into computer-executable machine language; this translation is commonly a compiler. Each language has its own compiler, as well as one for each type of computer. Because the machine language created by one computer’s COBOL compiler differs from the machine language generated by another computer, a COBOL compiler is required for each kind of computer on which COBOL programs will be run. However, please note that even if a given program is compiled to distinct machine language versions on multiple machines, the source program the COBOL version can be virtually similar on each platform.

Some languages are designed with a specific purpose in mind, such as controlling industrial robots or making graphics. Many languages, on the other hand, are extremely adaptable and deemed general-purpose. Historically, the bulk of computer programs was written in general-purpose languages such as BASIC, FORTRAN, or COBOL. In addition to these three, C, which we shall examine later, is a popular high-level language.

What is Programming?

Very High-Level Languages
Languages classified as very high-level languages are frequently referred to by their generation number, i.e., fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs.

Will the true fourth-generation languages please rise to the occasion? There is no agreed-upon definition of a fourth-generation language. The 4GLs are essentially programming languages written in abbreviated form. In a 4GL, an operation that takes hundreds of lines in a third-generation language like COBOL takes only five to ten lines. 4GLs, however, are difficult to characterize beyond the basic criterion of conciseness.

Some traits are shared by fourth-generation languages. The first is that they are fundamentally non-procedural, which sets them apart from previous generations. A procedural language instructs a computer on how to complete a task: add this, compare that, do this if that is true, and so on—a very detailed step-by-step procedure. All of the languages in the first three generations are procedural. The idea shifts in a nonprocedural language. Users only specify what they want the computer to do in this case; they do not specify how it should be done. Obviously, saying what you want rather than figuring out how to acquire it is a lot easier and faster. This brings us to the subject of productivity, which is a distinguishing feature of fourth-generation languages.

Fourth-generation languages, according to legend, can boost productivity by a factor of 5 to 50. The legend is true. According to most experts, the typical improvement factor is around ten, meaning that you may be ten times more productive in a fourth-generation language than you can in a third-generation language. Consider this request: Create a report with a subtotal for each client that shows the total units sold for each product, by the customer, in each month and year. Furthermore, each new buyer must begin on a fresh page. The following is an example of a 4GL request:


While some experience is needed to achieve even this, it is clear that it is rather straightforward. However, in the third-generation language COBOL, the identical request generally necessitates over 500 statements. If productivity is defined as achieving the same results in less time, then fourth-generation languages clearly boost productivity.

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It’s not all peaches and cream and productivity with fourth-generation languages. The 4GLs are still changing, therefore it is impossible to fully describe or standardize anything that is still evolving. Furthermore, because many 4GLs are simple to use, they attract a high number of new users, which may cause the computer system to become overburdened. One of the most common concerns is that the new languages lack the control and flexibility needed to plan how you want the output to appear. A prevalent misconception about 4GLs is that they do not make optimal use of machine resources; nonetheless, the advantages of finishing a program faster might greatly exceed the additional costs of executing it.

Languages of the fourth generation are advantageous because:
They are results-oriented, emphasizing what rather than how.
They increase productivity since programs are simple to build and modify.
Both programmers and nonprogrammers can utilize them with little instruction.
They insulate consumers from the need to understand the hardware and program structure.

Not long ago, few people imagined that fourth-generation languages would ever be able to supplant third-generation languages. These 4GL languages are used, although only in a limited capacity.

Query Languages:
Query languages are a type of fourth-generation language that can be used to get data from databases. Data is usually entered into databases in a planned manner, and reports may be generated as well. But what if a user requires an unscheduled report or one that differs from the standard reports in some way? A user can quickly learn a query language and then use it to submit a request and receive the resulting report on his or her own terminal or computer. Structured Query Language, or SQL, is a standardized query language that can be used with a variety of commercial database programs. Query-by-Example (QBE) and Intellect are two other popular query languages.

Natural Languages
The concept of “natural” is virtually as common in computer circles as it is in supermarkets. As you might expect, fifth-generation languages are even more ill-defined than fourth-generation languages. They are commonly referred to as natural languages due to their resemblance to “natural” spoken English. And natural means human-like to the manager who is new to computers and to whom these languages are now intended. Rather than being obliged to type the necessary commands and data names in the correct order, a manager tells the computer what to do by typing his or her own words into the computer.

The same thing can be said in a variety of ways by management. “Get me tennis racket sales for January,” for example, is exactly as effective as “I want January tennis racket revenues,” even if the request contains misspelled words, lacks articles and verbs, and even uses slang. Natural language translates human instructions including bad grammar, slang, and other idioms into computer-readable code. If it is unclear what the user is referring to, it politely requests clarification.

Because natural languages are used to interact with a body of information on some subject, they are frequently referred to as knowledge-based languages. A knowledge-based system is one that uses natural language to access a knowledge base.

Check out the following request in the 4GL Focus: “SUM ORDERS BY DATE BY REGION.” If we change the request and say, “Give me the dates and regions after you’ve totaled up the orders,” the computer will spit back the user-friendly equivalent of “You’ve got to be kidding” and give up. However, certain natural languages are capable of handling such a request. Users can loosen up the structure of their requests and have more control over how they interact with the data.

This is an example of a natural language request:

Choosing a Language

How do you decide the language to use to develop your program?
There are various options:
In the workplace, your manager may order that everyone on your project speak a specific language.
You may use a specific language, especially in a corporate setting, depending on the necessity to interface with other programs; if two applications are to function together, it is easier if they are developed in the same language.

You can select a language based on its suitability for the work at hand. A business application that manages huge files, for example, may be better built in the business language COBOL.
If a program is to be run on several computers, it must be developed in a portable language—one that is suited for each type of computer—so that the program only needs to be written once.
You may be constrained by the language’s availability. Not all languages are supported by all installs or systems.
The language may be limited to the programmer’s skill; that is, the program may have to be written in a language that only the available programmer is familiar with.

The most basic explanation, which applies to many amateur programmers, is that they are familiar with the BASIC programming language, which came with or was inexpensively purchased with their personal computers.

The Most Important Programming Languages

The sections on specific languages below will provide you an overview of the third-generation languages currently in use: FORTRAN (a scientific language), COBOL (a commercial language), BASIC (a basic language used in education and business), Pascal (education), Ada (military), and C (general purposed).

Some of these languages have programs written in them, which will be presented in this chapter. Each program’s output will likewise be visible. The goal of each program is to discover the average of three values; the resulting average is displayed in the sample output for each program. Because all apps do the same work, you’ll notice certain differences and similarities. These programs are only intended to give you a taste of each language; we don’t expect you to understand them.

The First Advanced Language

FORTRAN, or FORmula TRANslator, was the first high-level language, developed by IBM and released in 1954. FORTRAN is a scientifically oriented language; in the early days of computing, engineering, mathematics, and scientific research were the primary tasks.

FORTRAN is known for its simplicity, which is one of the reasons for its continued popularity. This language excels in its primary function, which is the execution of complex formulas like those used in economics and engineering. Although its capabilities in terms of file processing and data processing were once regarded restricted, they have substantially improved.

Not every program is set up in the same way. The way things are organized differs depending on the language. Programs in various languages (such as COBOL) are separated into sections. Although FORTRAN programs can be linked together, they are not made up of separate pieces; instead, FORTRAN programs are made up of statements that are executed one after another. As the data is used, several sorts of data are discovered. The format statements that follow the READ and WRITE statements contain descriptions for data records.

The Business Language: COBOL

Although FORTRAN was developed in the 1950s, there was still no widely accepted high-level programming language suitable for business. The United States Department of Defence, in particular, was interested in developing such a uniform language, so it convened a meeting of government and industry leaders, including those from the computer industry. CODASYL-Conference of DAta SYstem Languages was created by these representatives. CODASYL introduced COBOL (Common BusinessOriented Language) in 1959.

The US government encouraged the use of COBOL by requiring anyone hoping to secure government contracts for computer-related projects to do so. COBOL was initially standardized by the American National Rules Institute in 1968, and standards for another version known as ANSI-COBOL were established in 1974. The COBOL 85 standard was approved after more than seven years of contentious industry debate, making COBOL a more useable modern-day software tool. The main advantage of standardization is that COBOL is machine agnostic, which means that a program designed for one type of computer may be run on another with very minor alterations using a COBOL compiler.

COBOL is ideal for processing huge files and executing simple business computations like payroll and interest. COBOL is distinguished by its resemblance to English, even more so than FORTRAN or BASIC. The variable names are set up in such a way that you can comprehend what the program does even if you don’t know anything about programming.

COBOL is not difficult to learn once you have a basic understanding of programming principles. COBOL can be used for almost any business programming activity; in fact, it is particularly well suited to processing alphanumeric data such as street addresses, purchased items, and money amounts business data. However, the trait that makes COBOL so useful is its English-like look, and readability is also a flaw because COBOL programs can be extremely lengthy. A programmer rarely produces a COBOL program in a hurry. In truth, there is no such thing as a short COBOL program; even for a simple task, there are simply too many program lines to write. BASIC, FORTRAN, and Pascal are arguably the best choices for speed and simplicity.

BASIC: For both beginners and experienced users
BASIC (Beginners’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a widely used and easy-to-learn programming language. BASIC was created at Dartmouth College and launched in 1965 by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. It was designed for use by students in an academic setting. It was frequently utilized in interactive time-sharing environments in universities and colleges in the late 1960s. BASIC is now widely used in corporate and personal computer systems.

BASIC’s main characteristic is one that many readers of this book will find appealing: it’s simple to learn, even if you’ve never programmed before. As a result, the language is frequently utilized in the classroom to train students. Non-programmers, such as engineers, find BASIC valuable for problem resolution. For many years, “professional programmers” scorned BASIC, claiming that it had too many limits and was unsuitable for complicated jobs. Newer versions, such as Microsoft’s QuickBASIC, have a lot of new features.

Pascal: The Language of Simplicity
Pascal was designed as a teaching language by a Swiss computer scientist, Niklaus Wirth, and initially became available in 1971. It was named after Blaise Pascal, a seventeenth-century French mathematician. Since then, it has grown in popularity, first in Europe and now in the United States, particularly in computer science programs at universities and colleges.

Pascal’s biggest distinguishing trait is that it is simpler than other languages, with fewer features and less wordiness than most. Pascal has made significant inroads into the personal computer industry as a simple yet complex alternative to BASIC, in addition to its prominence in college computer science departments. Over time, subsequent versions of Pascal have improved on the original capabilities. Today, Borland’s Turbo Pascal reigns supreme in the Pascal world, thanks to its designers’ efforts to eliminate the majority of the original Pascal’s flaws. Turbo Pascal is utilized by the corporate community and is commonly the choice of nonprofessional programmers that need to develop their own programs.

Ada: Named after Countess Ada Lovelace.
Is there any software that is worth more than $25 billion? According to experts at the Defense Department, this is no longer the case. In 1974, the US Department of Defense spent that amount on a variety of software in a variety of languages to meet its requirements. The solution to this difficulty was Ada, a new programming language named after Countess Ada Lovelace, “the first programmer”. The Pentagon-sponsored Ada language was designed to be a standard language for weapons systems, but it has also been successfully employed in commercial applications. Ada, which was first introduced in 1980, has the support of the defense establishment as well as industry heavyweights like IBM and Intel, and it is even available for some home computers. Although some experts believe Ada is too complicated, others believe it is simple to learn and would boost productivity. Indeed, some experts say it is significantly superior to COBOL and FORTRAN in terms of business applications.

Many experts believe that widespread Ada use is improbable. Although there are a variety of reasons behind this, the size which may make it difficult to use on personal computers, and complexity are the most significant obstacles. Despite the fact that the Department of Defense is a market in and of itself, Ada has not gained traction in the corporate community to the extent that Pascal and C have.

C, C++, Java, and Javascript are all examples of programming languages.
C is a high-level language invented by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in 1972. It produces code that is similar in efficiency to assembly language while maintaining high-level language capabilities. C was created with the intention of writing systems software, although it is now regarded as a general-purpose language. C, like Pascal, also has one of the best features of other languages. C compilers are small and easy to use. One of its main advantages is that it is unaffected by the architecture of any given machine, which contributes to the portability of C applications. Such that, after being compiled for one type of computer, a C program can be run on another type of computer.

The availability of C on personal computers has substantially increased the value of personal computers for emerging software entrepreneurs, which is an intriguing side point. The same basic tool the language C that established software businesses like Microsoft and Borland use may be used by a cottage software industry. Today, C has been superseded by its more powerful cousin, C++. Web-aware languages like Java and Javascript, which look and act a lot like C++ but add features to support working with networked computers, among other things, are challenging C++.

C is a simple and attractive language, yet it is not easy to master. It was created for talented programmers, therefore the learning curve could be high. Simple problems can be solved quickly in C, but complicated problems necessitate a thorough understanding of the language.